Salt mini-course program

We provide this mini-course so you can learn about the impacts of salt on the environment and pledge to help protect our waters.


The concern

Salt is a major concern for Minneapolis waters. Every winter, excess salt runs into our storm drains, permanently polluting our waterways. When snow and ice melt, the salt goes with it, into our lakes, creeks, streams, wetlands, and groundwater.

Quick facts

  • De-icing salt is the #1 source of chloride use in Minnesota.
  • At high concentrations, chloride can harm the fish and plant life in our waters.
  • According to the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), 50 water bodies exceed the water quality standard for chloride (230 mg/L) in the Twin Cities metro area.
  • Data show that salt concentrations continue to increase in both surface waters and groundwater across the state.1

The course

Read through the following sections and watch the videos. At the end, you can pledge to practice salt stewardship in your community and request a salt decal to show your commitment.




10 minutes


24 minutes


 2 minutes



Chloride is a permanent pollutant

Once in the water, there is no easy way to remove chloride. In contrast to other pollutants, chloride cannot be removed through traditional stormwater management practices like bioretention, which removes contaminants and sedimentation from stormwater runoff. The only way to remove chloride is through reverse osmosis, which is a very expensive and labor-intensive process.1

Diving a little deeper

Impacts on drinking water

Most natural water contain traces of chloride, but too much can affect the taste of drinking water. Thirty percent of the wells in the Twin Cities have chloride concentration that exceed the water quality standard.2

Impacts on wildlife

Excess road salt in the environment affect the health of wildlife, such as birds and mammals. Birds are sensitive to salt because they often mistake salt crystals for seeds and consuming even small amounts of the salt can result in death. Mammals like deer may drink snow melt and ingest chloride resulting in salt toxicity. Overall, road salt can cause declines in salt sensitive species ultimately reducing natural diversity.3

Impacts on aquatic life

Chloride in surface water can be toxic to aquatic species including fish, macroinvertebrates, insects, and amphibians. Elevated levels of chloride threaten the health of food sources and pose a risk to species survival, growth, and reproduction.

Impacts on pets

Pets may consume deicing materials by eating them directly, licking their paws, or by drinking snow melt, all of which can harm their health. Exposure to deicing salt can cause irritation, inflammation, and cracking of their feet pads. Be mindful of how much salt you are putting down to protect the pets in your neighborhood.

Impacts on infrastructure

Chloride corrodes concrete on bridges, parking structures, and other buildings, leading to compromised structural integrity, and increased maintenance and repair costs. Deicing salt also accelerates rusting, causing damage to vehicle parts, another costly undertaking. 

What de-icer should I use?

If you need to use salt, make sure you know at what temperature your product stops working as not all salts work at all temperatures. Using the correct de-icer ensures that we don’t over apply salt in areas where it’s not necessary and instead utilize it in the most effective way possible. Look at the label on your product to determine what melting agent is most prevalent in your de-icer. Follow the guidelines below when choosing a de-icer:

Melting agent

Lowest pavement temperature at which product works


20° F

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

15° F

Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)

-10° F

Potassium acetate (KAc)

-15° F

Calcium chloride (CaCl2)

-20° F


Check with manufacturer


Never melts, provides traction only

Modified from Mississippi Watershed Management Organization

What can you do to help protect our water?

Unfortunately, there are no environmentally “safe” alternatives to salt, however, we can reduce excess salt by using smart salt application strategies. Smarter application of salt not only reduces chloride damage to our water, wildlife, aquatic life, and infrastructure, but also can aid in saving money on products. As an alternative to salt, the City of Minneapolis offers free sand for sidewalks to Minneapolis residents. After clearing your sidewalks, spreading sand can help provide traction.

Ways you can reduce salt use:

  • Shovel and scrape often. The more snow and ice you remove manually, the less salt is needed and more effective it becomes
  • Select the correct de-icer (different de-icers work at different temperatures)
  • Scatter salt only where critical (aim for 3 inches of space between salt granules)
  • Sweep up and reuse leftover salt
Man in construction vest shoveling snow
A member of Minneapolis Public Works staff shovels snow to reduce the need to use salt.
Man in a blue uniform sweeping a city sidewalk
A Minneapolis Downtown Improvement District ambassador sweeps salt from the sidewalk for reuse.
White bucket of blue salt and a hand holding up a spoonful of salt
One teaspoon of salt pollutes five gallons of water.




  • More salt does not mean more melting
  • Chloride is a permanent pollutant, it stays in our water bodies forever
  • 1 teaspoon of salt pollutes 5 gallons of water  
  • Chloride is toxic to fish and plants 


  1. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. Twin Cities Chloride Management Plan

  2. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. Chloride 101

  3. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Road Salt Reduction


This is not a smart salting certification. This is a pledge to commit to salt stewardship.
If you’re interesting in becoming smart salt certified, the MPCA offers Smart Salting training.

Videos provided with permission from: Mark Pedelty and the Econsong.Net Collective,
Mississippi Watershed Management Organization (MWMO), and Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA).

Take the pledge

Request accessible format

If you need help with this information, please email 311, or call 311 or 612-673-3000.

Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use.

Contact us

Lianna Goldstein

Minnesota GreenCorps Member
Public Works